Thursday, July 27, 2017

TWIN PIT TECHNOLOGY

People of Gangadevipalli village in Geesukonda mandal had rare guests on 18th feburary. A team of 40 senior IAS officers — principal secretaries of different states — and representatives of the UNICEF, led by Secretary to the Union Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation Parameswaran Iyer came on a field trip to the village.
The officers were in the village for a first-hand knowledge of the working of twin-pit toilets and how to convert human excreta into manure. The officers, on a training programme at the National Institute of Rural Development(NIRD) in Hyderabad, came in two buses and went round the village. The officers divided into seven teams visited the toilets in seven houses and interacted with the residents to understand its working.

Waste into manure
The villagers have been using twin-pit technology toilets for over a decade and converting human waste into organic manure for quite some time now. 
Under the twin-pit technology, the residents have two pits for collecting solid waste from household toilets. After one pit is filled with human waste, it is closed and the waste is collected into the second pit. The waste in the first pit is allowed to dry for over a year. Then the dried waste is taken out and used as organic manure for farms. The villagers gave samples of manure to the visiting officers. 

Replicable model
Later, addressing the officers, media and others, the Union Secretary described it as ‘waste to wealth’. The technology has been tested and proven to be safe. It is good organic manure which could be used for farms. “This method should be popularised in other places as well,” he suggested.
Mr. Iyer showered praise on the villagers and said they adopted Swachh Bharat concept two decades ago and won many laurels. “We have heard a lot about this village as an ideal village. We feel happy to be here where people are first in many aspects such as sanitation, drinking water and literacy, among others,” he said.
Significant firsts
District Collector Prashanth Jeevan Patil explained to the the visiting dignitaries that Gangadevipally stood top on many counts as the villagers were united and had achieved considerable progress. Efforts were on to replicate the success stories in all other villages, he said.
Commissioner of Rural Development Neetu Prasad and other senior officers were present.

KSG Bulletin 27 July 2017


What is a debt instrument?


A debt instrument is a paper or electronic legal obligation that enables the issuer (or taker) to raise funds by promising to repay a lender (or giver) the borrowed sum along with interest on a timely basis. It allows the lender (or giver) to earn a fixed interest on it besides getting the principal back. Types of debt instruments include bonds, debentures, leases, certificates, bills of exchange, promissory notes etc. These instruments provide option for market participants to easily transfer the ownership of debt obligations from one party to another. The lender receives a fixed amount of interest along with repayment of principal amount during the lifetime of the instrument. It is a kind of IOU (I owe you) between the issuer and the purchaser.
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9201-what-is-a-debt-instrument

Guidelines of SGB Scheme


The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has given approval for revision of guidelines of Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGB) Scheme with a view to achieve its intended objectives. Two sets of changes have been made in the scheme:
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9202-guidelines-of-sgb-scheme

Revision Cost of SECC 2011


The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the proposal of Department of Rural Development for revision of cost of Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 (SECC 2011).
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9203-revision-cost-of-secc-2011

First InvIT IndiGrid


The power sector’s first ‘Infrastructure Investment Trust (InvIT)’ IndiGrid, which was floated to own transmission assets across the country, would acquire four more projects of its sponsor– Sterlite Power Grid Ventures Limited. IndiGrid currently owns two assets of Sterlite– the Jabalpur Transmission Company Limited and the Bhopal Dhule Transmission Company Limited.
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9204-first-invit-indigrid

Legislation on DNA profiling


The Law Commission on 27 July 2017 recommended a new legislation on DNA profiling which says that the tool would be used exclusively for identification of a person and not to "extract" any other information. "DNA profiling would be undertaken exclusively for identification of a person and would not be used to extract any other information," the panel said in its recommendation to the government.
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9205-legislation-on-dna-profiling

Three Codex standards for spices adopted


In a major recognition of India’s efforts to benchmark global spices trade, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) has adopted three Codex standards for black, white and green pepper, cumin and thyme, paving the way for universal agreement on identifying quality spices in various countries. The member-countries of CAC, the international food standards-setting body which met in Geneva for its 40th session during July 17-22, unanimously approved the adoption of Codex standards for the three spices, which would facilitate evolving a common standardization process for their global trade and availability.
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9206-three-codex-standards-for-spices-adopted


क्यों अरब देशों ने कतर के खिलाफ उठाया ये कदम


आतंकवाद के मसले पर कतर से संबंध तोड़ने के बाद सऊदी अरब और सहयोगी देशों ने अब एक आतंकी सूची जारी की है। इसमें आतंकी समूहों से संबंध रखने के संदेह में 18 संगठनों और लोगों को शामिल किया गया है। दावा किया गया है कि इनका ताल्लुक कतर से है। सऊदी अरब, संयुक्त अरब अमीरात, बहरीन और मिस्र ने यह कदम अमेरिका के सहयोगी देश कतर के साथ समझौता करने के अंतरराष्ट्रीय दबाव के बावजूद उठाया।
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9196-2017-07-27-04-03-36

मुनाफाखोरी रोधक प्राधिकरण के लिए बनी समिति


जीएसटी काउंसिल ने जीएसटी के अंतर्गत मुनाफाखोरी के खिलाफ राष्ट्रीय प्राधिकरण के अध्यक्ष और सदस्यों की नियुक्ति के लिए योग्य व्यक्तियों की पहचान और सिफारिश करने के लिए कैबिनेट सचिव की अध्यक्षता में चयन समिति का गठन किया है। मुनाफाखोरी के खिलाफ राष्ट्रीय प्राधिकरण का कार्य उपभोक्ताओं को वस्तुओं और सेवाओं के प्रवाह पर कर में कटौती का पूर्ण लाभ सुनिश्चित करना है।
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9197-2017-07-27-04-03-51

एसईसीसी 2011 की लागत में संशोधन को मंजूरी


प्रधानमंत्री श्री नरेन्‍द्र मोदी की अध्‍यक्षता में आर्थिक मामलों पर कैबिनेट समिति (सीसीईए) ने सामाजिक-आर्थिक और जातिगत जनगणना 2011 (एसईसीसी 2011) की लागत में संशोधन करने संबंधी ग्रामीण विकास विभाग के प्रस्‍ताव को मंजूरी दे दी है। इसमें निम्‍नलिखित बातों का उल्‍लेख किया गया है:
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9198-2011-2

डीएनए नया मसौदा


डीएनए का बेजा इस्तेमाल न हो इसके लिए लॉ कमीशन ने नया मसौदा तैयार किया है। सरकार के पास सिफारिश भेजी गई है। अब इस पर नया कानून बनाया जा सकता है। कमीशन का मानना है कि किसी व्यक्ति का डीएनए टेस्ट केवल पहचान को उजागर करने के लिए हो।
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9199-2017-07-27-04-04-20

सोवरन गोल्ड बॉन्ड स्कीम में संशोधन को स्वीकृति


प्रधानमंत्री श्री नरेन्द्र मोदी की अध्यक्षता में केन्द्रीय मंत्रिमण्डल ने सोवरन गोल्ड बॉन्ड (एसजीबी) स्कीम को और अधिक उद्देश्य पूर्ण बनाने के लिए इसके दिशा निर्देशों में संशोधन की अनुमति दे दी है।
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9200-2017-07-27-04-04-35

Today's Headlines 27 July 2017

Three Codex standards for spices adopted
In a major recognition of India’s efforts to benchmark global spices trade, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) has adopted three Codex standards for black, white and green pepper, cumin and thyme, paving the way for universal agreement on identifying quality spices in various countries. The member-countries of CAC, the international food standards-setting body which met in Geneva for its 40th session during July 17-22, unanimously approved the adoption of Codex standards for the three spices, which would facilitate evolving a common standardization process for their global trade and availability.
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9206-three-codex-standards-for-spices-adopted

Legislation on DNA profiling
The Law Commission on 27 July 2017 recommended a new legislation on DNA profiling which says that the tool would be used exclusively for identification of a person and not to "extract" any other information. "DNA profiling would be undertaken exclusively for identification of a person and would not be used to extract any other information," the panel said in its recommendation to the government.
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9205-legislation-on-dna-profiling

First InvIT IndiGrid
The power sector’s first ‘Infrastructure Investment Trust (InvIT)’ IndiGrid, which was floated to own transmission assets across the country, would acquire four more projects of its sponsor– Sterlite Power Grid Ventures Limited. IndiGrid currently owns two assets of Sterlite– the Jabalpur Transmission Company Limited and the Bhopal Dhule Transmission Company Limited.
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9204-first-invit-indigrid

Revision Cost of SECC 2011
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the proposal of Department of Rural Development for revision of cost of Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 (SECC 2011).
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9203-revision-cost-of-secc-2011

Guidelines of SGB Scheme
The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has given approval for revision of guidelines of Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGB) Scheme with a view to achieve its intended objectives. Two sets of changes have been made in the scheme:
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9202-guidelines-of-sgb-scheme

What is a debt instrument?
A debt instrument is a paper or electronic legal obligation that enables the issuer (or taker) to raise funds by promising to repay a lender (or giver) the borrowed sum along with interest on a timely basis. It allows the lender (or giver) to earn a fixed interest on it besides getting the principal back. Types of debt instruments include bonds, debentures, leases, certificates, bills of exchange, promissory notes etc. These instruments provide option for market participants to easily transfer the ownership of debt obligations from one party to another. The lender receives a fixed amount of interest along with repayment of principal amount during the lifetime of the instrument. It is a kind of IOU (I owe you) between the issuer and the purchaser.
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants/9201-what-is-a-debt-instrument

Today's Editorial 27 July 2017

The casualties of the Enemy Property Act

Source: By Nikita Doval: Mint
Dr Anisul Haq climbs the steep steps, each at least a foot high, cautioning us to be careful. The steps lead to his workshop, situated just a few feet from his dental clinic at Chandni Chowk’s Kucha Rehman Gali in Delhi. It’s a large airy room with several dentures lying scattered on the table. But it is the files, spilling out from every available nook and corner, which catches your eye. “Sab jagah files hain, almarih kholo, file girti hai (there are files everywhere, you open a cupboard and they spill out),” he says even as he rifles through a pile.
He is trying to find a particular judgement which he says he had great difficulty procuring but is essential to the case his family has been fighting against the Indian government since he was 20 years old. Haq is 60 now. “My father spent his life fighting. I have been doing it for my entire life. But this will end with me. My son will not fight this fight,” he says, with emphasis.
The house that Haq has lived in, since he was a child, a property that was gifted to his father Ameenul Haq by his sister Jehangir Begum, whose children migrated to Pakistan, has been declared “Enemy Property” by the government of India. That means Haq’s family has no right over it. In fact, the property needs to be vested with the Custodian of Enemy Property, a government department. Haq’s is not a unique case. Different versions have been playing out across the country with a cast of characters as varied as former royalty, a Bollywood-cricketing legacy family and scores of ordinary citizens.
In 1962, when war broke out between India and China, the Defence of India Rules was rolled out. Modelled on the Defence of India Act 1915, which was an emergency law granting the executive wide-ranging powers, the 1962 version allowed the government, among other privileges, to take over the properties of citizens of China. This was issued again in 1965, applicable to properties in India of Pakistani citizens, when war broke out between India and Pakistan. The Defence of India Rules were suspended once hostilities ended, but in 1968 the government of India enacted a legislation called the Enemy Property Act, which categorically defined enemy property as properties of citizens of countries which are considered an “enemy” by the Indian government; essentially any country that commits an act of aggression against India.
Properties considered “enemy property” were not limited to landed assets and included assets such as company shares and jewellery. It was under this Act that the office of the Custodian of Enemy Property was established. Enemy Property Act defined Enemy Property as properties of citizens of countries which are considered an ‘enemy’ by India— essentially any country that commits an act of aggression against India
Seizure of properties of citizens of hostile nations in war time was practised during both World War Iand World War II in order to prevent enemies from using them. During World War II, Enemy Property in the UK was seized under the provisions of the Trading with the Enemy Act 1939 and included two different kind of enemies—technical enemies (countries under occupation), and belligerent enemies(countries actively fighting the UK). After the war, the return of property of technical enemies commenced. According to a 1998 paper titled British policy towards Enemy Property during and after the Second World War, by 1951, 90% of assets of technical enemies held by the custodian had been released.
In India, however, the Act of 1968 was brought in to provide for the continued vesting of enemy property with the Custodian of Enemy Property, which, given the renewed hostilities between India and Pakistan in 1971, may have seemed propitious at that time. The Act has continued since then, completely taking over the lives of citizens such as Haq. And, it gets worse. Forty-nine years later, on 14 March 2017, the Lok Sabha passed the Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Bill, 2016, which retrospectively rewrote the powers vested with the office of the Custodian as well as expanded the definition of “enemy” under the Act.
The original Act defined “enemy” as “…a person or country who or which was an enemy, an enemy subject or an enemy firm, as the case may be… but does not include a citizen of India”. This was a very important distinction, for the Act had mostly come to apply to those who had left India for Pakistan in 1947. Families had, however, been torn asunder with many from the same family choosing different sides and hence the difference was crucial. The new Act states, “…the expression ‘does not include citizen of India’ shall exclude…those citizens of India, who are or have been legal heir and successor of an ‘enemy’.” The amended Act seeks to clearly discriminate against those Indian citizens whose forefathers or extended family members migrated to Pakistan in the ensuing years after partition
In other words, the Act seeks to clearly discriminate against those Indian citizens whose forefathers or extended family members migrated to Pakistan in the ensuing years after partition. The retrospective nature of the new Act also renders null and void any sort of transaction that may have taken place of a disputed property. “So, basically, what the new bill has done is that it created a different category of citizens, the ones who are Indians by birth, live here, hold Indian passports, participate in Indian democratic processes but are enemies when it comes to the actions of their forefathers. According to the new bill, the laws of succession will not apply to these properties. You are denying the court the right to interfere, these are all draconian measures,” says Aishwarya Pandit, assistant professor with Jindal Global Law School.
But what prompted these amendments in the first place? The impetus for that can be traced to a 2005 Supreme Court judgement—Union of India & Another vs Raja Mohammed Amir Mohammad Khan. The gentleman in question is the son of the erstwhile Raja of Mahmudabad, Uttar Pradesh, who had migrated to Pakistan and become a citizen in 1957. The property of the royal family under the Defence of India Rules, were therefore vested in the custodian. This included among other things, a heritage hotel in Nainital and properties in Lucknow such as the Butler Palace, Mahmudabad Mansion, Lawrie Building, Halwasia, Malka Zamania and Siddiqui Building. Apart from this, properties in Sitapur were also taken over. Nearly all of these properties are prime real estate.
The current Raja, who has also been a two-time MLA from Mahmudabad, has been petitioning the government of India to return his properties since 1979 (his father died in London in 1973) and in 2005, the Supreme Court came down heavily against the Custodian of Enemy Property, which opposed the return of properties. Deciding the case in favour of the former royal the apex court judgement stated: “After the death of his father, respondent who is a citizen of India inherited the property being the sole heir and successor of his father. Can he be termed as enemy or enemy subject… can the property of an Indian citizen be termed as enemy property… Answer is emphatic No.”
The judgement also clearly laid down just what the role of the Custodian of Enemy Property was vis-a-vis the properties by stating that the vesting of the properties is “limited to the extent of possession, management and control over the properties only. The right, title or interest of the owner is not taken away.”  The judgement carried echoes of a 1975 judgement of Hamida Begum vs M.K. Rangachari, Custodian and Others, in which the court recognized the custodian as just the protector of enemy property and not its owner. Hamida Begum was the owner of Kishori Court, a bungalow which is located in Mumbai’s Worli Sea Face area, again prime real estate.
According to an Indian Express report dated 2 April 2017, the house was auctioned off in the 1960sby the tax department to recover municipal taxes. But the auction was reversed and the ownership handed back to the Custodian of Enemy Property. The amendment passed by the government makes the Custodian the owner of enemy property, retrospectively from 1968. In 2010, it was the UPA government that had promulgated an ordinance rewriting the 1968 Act retrospectively. As soon as this was done, the Mahmudabad properties were seized again and continue to be with the Custodian even though the UPA allowed the ordinance to lapse. The NDA promulgated the ordinance four more times before the amendment was finally passed this year.
“There are several issues with the Act. The first is that you are classifying certain people as citizens but with a disability (referring to the clause of including legal heirs of an enemy subject even though Indian citizens) and for what purpose?” questions senior lawyer Anand Grover. In January this year, Grover appeared for Congress Rajya Sabha MP Husain Dalwai, challenging the centre’s decision to re-promulgate the ordinance for the fifth time. The basis for the writ petition was a recent judgement by the Supreme Court which had ruled that re-promulgation of ordinances is constitutionally impermissible. The court rejected the petition.
Interestingly, the number of enemy properties in India seems to have seen a steep rise since 2010 when they stood at 2,111. In 2014, 12,090 properties were listed and in 2015, 14,759. Currently, the government has identified 15,143 properties, with the maximum in Uttar Pradesh, followed by West Bengal. Notices have been issued to owners/tenants asking for rent.
“From reports to our own investigations, there are several sources for identifying a potential enemy property. Extensive groundwork is done if a property comes to our notice which includes a visit by a surveyor who is usually a retired revenue officer. The surveyor will check land records, vet claims of those who are living there, see if there are other properties in the name of the original owner, etc. A report is then prepared and then sent to the supervisor and under Section 11 of the Act, we ask the present owner to appear and explain his ownership. No-show under Section 11 carries a fine of Rs10,000,” explains an officer in the Custodian of Enemy Property, which is headquartered in Mumbai and has offices in Lucknow and Kolkata.
In 2015, the Custodian of Enemy Property had even declared the properties of the former state of Bhopal, the current Nawab of which is Bollywood actor Saif Ali Khan, as enemy property. “The older daughter of the then Nawab, Hamidullah Khan, Abida Sultan, had migrated to Pakistan. The Nawab who was alive till well into the sixties had declared his other daughter, Sajida Sultan, the mother of cricketer Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi, to be his legal heir. The Union of India has even recognized this transfer of succession.
The claim of the Custodian was challenged by Saif Ali Khan and there has been a stay on the case since May 2016,” informs Bhopal-based lawyer Jagdish Chhawani, who represents several other families who will be affected by the Custodian’s decision to take over the Nawab’s properties.
“A lot of families, especially in the old city, are affected by this move. A lot of the Nawab’s properties were sold off over the years and now ordinary families are threatened. The properties, spread across Bhopal, Raisen and Sehore, encompass several hundred acres and constitute prime real estate,” he explains. Confusion seems to be the running theme when it comes to the designation of enemy properties. There have been instances of properties that were initially identified as evacuee property and later declared to be enemy property. The Evacuee Property Act of 1950 dealt with the properties of those who left on account of communal disturbances in 1947. Such properties were taken over the government and then handed out to those who were coming from the other side.
Haq displays a deed of conveyance regarding the sale of an evacuee property (separate from the one aforementioned) to his mother Saida Fatima in 1974 for Rs19,400. The deed identifies the President of India as the vendor. “Now they are saying the superstructure on the evacuee property is actually enemy property and I should pay rent on it.” Many, including ordinary citizens, legal experts and politicians, view the Enemy Property Act as being directed towards a particular community. Haq minces no words when he says, “Be it money or business, they want to destroy us.”
A senior lawyer, familiar with the case, says that the new Act is another systematic attempt to attack the minority community. Congress leader Shashi Tharoor, in a debate in the Lok Sabha over the issue in 2016, had stated, “…the law will explicitly create two kinds of Indian citizens… if somehow there are two categories of Indian citizens and one category does not have the rights of the other that is a very dangerous practice.”  But there are others like Jindal Global Law School’s Pandit who thinks that rather than blame one particular ruling coalition or political party, the blame for the new Act should be shared across the board.
“One government may have passed the bill but the ordinance was introduced by another in response to a judgement. The problem with the issue is that it is linked to our relationship with our neighbour. If you discuss this on a basic level with a commoner, they would certainly go with the argument of the state. Plus, the state clearly does not wish to return properties. It’s too complicated. Most of them are on rent and this invites further litigation. Given the nature of our relationship with Pakistan which is extremely volatile, this will always be a highly political issue.”
Legally, the one recourse against the Act is to challenge it on the grounds that it violates Article 14 of the Constitution which guarantees the right to equality. “It is possible to argue that this is not a law which is sustainable under the Constitution,” says Grover though he thinks the major ground is going to be that the government has tried to undercut the judgement in the case of the Raja of Mahmudabad. There are no permanent enemies or friends in politics. The sentiment can be extended to nations too. Pakistan has not been declared an enemy state by India; on the contrary, it continues to enjoy “most favoured nation” status which confers upon it trade benefits. India and China share a difficult relationship but they are a far cry from being outright hostile. Those who argue for the new Act often cite Pakistan’s sale of all enemy properties in 1971 itself, but should another nation’s behaviour be the yardstick with which we treat our own citizens? Aggrieved men and women across the country seek an answer to this question.

Today's Questions (P.T) 27 July 2017

Which among the following Indian University have made place in the top 100 university in the ‘Times Higher Education (THE) World Reputation Ranking 2017’?
            (a) Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
            (b) Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
            (c) Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
            (d) None of the above 

Question Of The Day (Mains) 27 July 2017

Existence of God was not necessary in order to explain the origin of the universe. Elucidate.

Today's Headlines (Hindi) 27 July 2017

सोवरन गोल्ड बॉन्ड स्कीम में संशोधन को स्वीकृति
प्रधानमंत्री श्री नरेन्द्र मोदी की अध्यक्षता में केन्द्रीय मंत्रिमण्डल ने सोवरन गोल्ड बॉन्ड (एसजीबी) स्कीम को और अधिक उद्देश्य पूर्ण बनाने के लिए इसके दिशा निर्देशों में संशोधन की अनुमति दे दी है।
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9200-2017-07-27-04-04-35

डीएनए नया मसौदा
डीएनए का बेजा इस्तेमाल न हो इसके लिए लॉ कमीशन ने नया मसौदा तैयार किया है। सरकार के पास सिफारिश भेजी गई है। अब इस पर नया कानून बनाया जा सकता है। कमीशन का मानना है कि किसी व्यक्ति का डीएनए टेस्ट केवल पहचान को उजागर करने के लिए हो।
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9199-2017-07-27-04-04-20

एसईसीसी 2011 की लागत में संशोधन को मंजूरी
प्रधानमंत्री श्री नरेन्‍द्र मोदी की अध्‍यक्षता में आर्थिक मामलों पर कैबिनेट समिति (सीसीईए) ने सामाजिक-आर्थिक और जातिगत जनगणना 2011 (एसईसीसी 2011) की लागत में संशोधन करने संबंधी ग्रामीण विकास विभाग के प्रस्‍ताव को मंजूरी दे दी है। इसमें निम्‍नलिखित बातों का उल्‍लेख किया गया है:
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9198-2011-2

मुनाफाखोरी रोधक प्राधिकरण के लिए बनी समिति
जीएसटी काउंसिल ने जीएसटी के अंतर्गत मुनाफाखोरी के खिलाफ राष्ट्रीय प्राधिकरण के अध्यक्ष और सदस्यों की नियुक्ति के लिए योग्य व्यक्तियों की पहचान और सिफारिश करने के लिए कैबिनेट सचिव की अध्यक्षता में चयन समिति का गठन किया है। मुनाफाखोरी के खिलाफ राष्ट्रीय प्राधिकरण का कार्य उपभोक्ताओं को वस्तुओं और सेवाओं के प्रवाह पर कर में कटौती का पूर्ण लाभ सुनिश्चित करना है।
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9197-2017-07-27-04-03-51

क्यों अरब देशों ने कतर के खिलाफ उठाया ये कदम
आतंकवाद के मसले पर कतर से संबंध तोड़ने के बाद सऊदी अरब और सहयोगी देशों ने अब एक आतंकी सूची जारी की है। इसमें आतंकी समूहों से संबंध रखने के संदेह में 18 संगठनों और लोगों को शामिल किया गया है। दावा किया गया है कि इनका ताल्लुक कतर से है। सऊदी अरब, संयुक्त अरब अमीरात, बहरीन और मिस्र ने यह कदम अमेरिका के सहयोगी देश कतर के साथ समझौता करने के अंतरराष्ट्रीय दबाव के बावजूद उठाया।
Read more: http://www.ksgindia.com/index.php/study-material/news-for-aspirants-hindi/9196-2017-07-27-04-03-36

Today's Editorial (Hindi) 27 July 2017

फंसा हुआ कर्ज और गोलमाल का चक्र

स्रोत: द्वारा देवाशिष बसु: बिज़नेस स्टैण्डर्ड
 एक वर्ष से कुछ अरसा पहले मई 2016 में मैंने एक आलेख लिखकर फंसे हुए कर्ज से निपटने की नई व्यवस्था की खामियों पर अंगुली उठाई थी। दिवालियापन के लिए एक नई नौकरशाही व्यवस्था कायम की जा रही थी जिससे केवल कानूनी जटिलताएं बढऩे का ही अनुमान लगाया जा सकता था। अब तो यही लग रहा है कि मैंने कुछ ज्यादा ही सहज अनुमान लगा लिए थे जबकि हालात ज्यादा बुरे होने की आशंका करनी चाहिए थी। वित्त मंत्रालय के आला अधिकारियों और भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक (आरबीआई) ने तदर्थ उपाय अपनाना और समस्या से मामूली छेड़छाड़ करना जारी रखा
एस्सार स्टील के मामले में गुजरात उच्च न्यायालय ने इस मामले पर कुछ तीखी टिप्पणियां की हैं। जून के मध्य में आरबीआई ने कहा था कि वह चाहता है किफंसे हुए कर्ज के 12 चुनिंदा मामलों की राष्ट्रीय कंपनी लॉ पंचाट (एनसीएलटी) में त्वरित सुनवाई कराने की बात कही थी। तीन सप्ताह बाद उन 12कंपनियों में से एक एस्सार स्टील ने गुजरात उच्च न्यायालय का रुख किया। उसने वहां दलील दी कि आरबीआई का रुख मनमाना और भेदभाव वाला था। कंपनी को स्थगन आदेश हासिल करने में कामयाबी मिली। दो घंटे लंबी सुनवाई के दौरान न्यायमूर्ति एस जी शाह ने कथित तौर पर आरबीआई के रुख को लेकर अपनी नाखुशी और आपत्ति जाहिर की। यह आपत्ति आरबीआई के इस रुख पर थी कि एनसीएलटी को दिवालिया मामलों को हल करने के लिए जरूरी अधिकार थे।
उन्होंने अपनी टिप्पणी में कहा कि विभिन्न पक्षकार अदालत जाने को स्वतंत्र थे और अदालत को भी ऐसे मामलों की सुनवाई का पूरा अधिकार था। एक अखबार में छपी रिपोर्ट के मुताबिक एनसीएलटी की दिवालिया शक्तियों पर सवाल उठाते शाह ने परिहास में कहा था कि हो सकता है पेशेवर डिग्री धारी लोगों के पास यह क्षमता न हो कि वे कंपनियां चला सकें। उनका इशारा दिवालिया कंपनियों के प्रबंधन के लिए पेशेवरों की नियुक्ति से जुड़ा था। इसके बाद आरबीआई ने अप्रत्याशित ढंग से गलती स्वीकार करते हुए अदालत से कहा कि वह अपनी अधिसूचना से जुड़ा एक भूलसुधार जारी करेगी। इस पूरे प्रकरण के दूरगामी परिणाम हैं।
वित्त मंत्रालय और रिजर्व बैंक ने फंसे हुए कर्ज वाली 12 कंपनियों के खिलाफ साहसिक कदम उठाया लेकिन वह जल्दबाजी में उठाया गया कदम साबित हुआ। यह सुविचारित नहीं था और इस पर कानूनी प्रश्न उठाए जा सकते थे। हर उच्च न्यायालय देनदारी में चूक करने वालों के लिए एक राह खुली रखता है। दिवालिया प्रक्रिया को लेकर बहुत शेखी बघारी गई थी लेकिन कानून के जानकारों और शैक्षणिक जगत के लोगों द्वारा तैयार किए गए इस खाके में गहरी खामियां नजर आती हैं।
यह इस बात का पहला संकेत है कि कैसे फंसे हुए कर्ज से निपटने की नई व्यवस्था जल्दी ही कानूनी दांवपेच में फंस जाएगी। ऐसे कई मामले तैयार हो जाएंगे और नई व्यवस्था कछुआ चाल चलने को मजबूर हो जाएगी। कम से कम बड़े खातों के मामलों में जहां तेज गति जरूरी है वहां तो ऐसा ही होगा। गत वर्ष जब इन्सॉल्वेंसी ऐंड बैंकरप्सी कोड (आईबीसी) पारित हुआ था तब कहा गया था कि यह देश को कारोबारी सुगमता की दिशा में आगे ले जाने वाला एक और कदम है। भारत इस मामले में खासा पीछे है। मैंने पहले भी कहा है कि इस अधिनियम के जरिए आधी-अधूरी कार्रवाई ही पूरी हो रही है। नया अधिनियम राज्य की अधिक भागीदारी मांगता है। फंसे हुए कर्ज की बात करें तो यह मुख्य रूप से सरकारी बैंकों की उत्पत्ति है। यहां शीर्ष प्रबंधन की जवाबदेही उनके करियर की संभावनाओं से जुड़ी नहीं होती। न ही उनको कोई कानूनी परिणाम झेलने होते हैं। ऐसे में नए फंसे हुए कर्ज की आवक जारी रहेगी जबकि हम केवल पुराने कर्ज के निपटारे की बात कर रहे हैं।
एक ओर फंसा हुआ कर्ज निपटाया जा रहा है तो दूसरी ओर नया कर्ज बढ़ रहा है। देखते हैं कि बीते 30 साल में इस दिशा में क्या प्रयास किए गए हैं?औद्योगिक एवं वित्तीय पुनर्गठन बोर्ड (1987)कंपनी लॉ बोर्ड (1991)बैंकों और वित्तीय संस्थानों का कर्ज वसूली अधिनियम (1993) और वित्तीय परिसंपत्तियों के प्रतिभूतिकरण एवं पुनर्गठन तथा प्रतिभूति ब्याज के प्रवर्तन (सरफेसी) अधिनियम 2002 आदि ऐसे ही प्रयास हैं। इनके अलावा कथित बैंकिंग नियामक ने भी प्रयास किया लेकिन बिना किसी जवाबदेही के। वर्ष 2001 में कॉर्पोरेट ऋण पुनर्गठनवर्ष 2014 में ज्वाइंट लेंडर्स फोरमवर्ष 2015 में स्ट्रैटजिक डेट रिस्ट्रक्चरिंग और वर्ष 2016 में तनावग्रस्त परिसंपत्ति के स्थायी पुनर्गठन की योजना में से कुछ भी कारगर साबित नहीं हुआ। ऐसे में राज्य को दोबारा शामिल करना और एक नई कानून का इस्तेमाल करना सही नहीं प्रतीत होता। इसके अलावा आरबीआई की समिति को सीधे एनसीएलटी को कुछ मामले प्राथमिकता पर संभालने का निर्देश देना उचित नहीं लगता।
मैंने पिछले वर्ष कहा था कि नई व्यवस्था जल्दी ही सौदेबाजीलंबी निष्क्रियतागतिरोध भरे प्रस्तावों और हजारों अनसुलझे मामलों का सबब बनेगी। इस सबकी शुरुआत हो चुकी है। हल क्या हैएक साधारण लेकिन अधिक प्रभावी और सस्ता हल जो फंसे हुए कर्ज के बड़े मामले निपटाने में मदद करे। ऐसा हल बाजार आधारित रुख से ही हासिल किया जा सकता है। अधिकांश सफल और आर्थिक रूप से व्यवहार्य देश ऐसा ही करते हैं। इसमें न तो पहले ही अतिरिक्त बोझ से दबी न्याय व्यवस्था से कुछ चाहा गया है और न ही यह सही कदम उठाने की मानवीय भावना पर केंद्रित है। हमें केवल बाजार चाहिए जोतनावग्रस्त प्रतिभूतियों और उच्च प्रतिफल बॉन्ड का कारोबार संभाल सके। इससे साधारण मुद्दे एक झटके में हल करने में मदद मिलेगी। मामले का हल खरीदारों और विक्रेताओं पर छोड़ा जा सकता है बजाय कि अधिवक्ताओं और पेशेवरों के।
 अधिक से अधिक ऋण पत्रों के आकलन का काम रेटिंग एजेंसियों पर छोड़ दिया जाए। एक स्वचालित और बेहतर मूल्यांकन पद्घति हो जो फंसी हुई परिसंपत्तियों का आकलन करे। ओकट्री कैपिटलजेसी फ्लावर्सगोल्डमैन सैक्स और केकेआर जैसी फर्म से अरबों डॉलर जुटाए जा सकते हैं और सबसे अहम बात है कि इस प्रक्रिया में अक्षम प्रवर्तक आसानी से और तेजी से बाहर हो जाएंगे। इस प्रक्रिया में लागत कम आएगी और फंसे हुए कर्ज की समस्या का निस्तारण तेजी से होगा। बैंकों के नकदीकरण की प्रक्रिया भी तेज होगी। सवाल यह है कि हमने अब तक यह प्रक्रिया क्यों नहीं अपनाईअकादमिक जगत के लोगोंअधिवक्ताओंबैंकरों और अंकेक्षकों के निहित हितों को देखें तो कहा जा सकता है कि भला कौन इस गतिरोध वाली व्यवस्था को ठीक करना चाहेगा?

Today's Questions (P.T) Hindi 27 July 2017